Tabor on Eisenman’s Newest

James Tabor blogs about Robert Eisenman’s newest release, The New Testament Code. The book is a sequel to Eisenman’s earlier treatment of James, the Brother of Jesus. Tabor also provides a table of contents which includes three chapters that look pertinent to my thesis:

  1. James as ‘Rain-Maker’ and ‘Friend of God’ 123
  2. Other Rain-Making ‘Zaddik’s in the ‘Primal Adam’Tradition 142
  3. Revolutionary Messianism and the Elijah Redivivus Tradition 173

Let me be clear, given my opinion of Eisenman’s previous work, I probably will not integrate much of his speculation into my own thesis. Nonetheless, he is one of the only authors who has paid any attention to the Elijah tradition as it pertains to James, along with the motif of eschatological rain. See his article: “Eschatological ‘rain’ imagery in the War Scroll from Qumran and in the Letter of James.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 49 (1990): 173-184. In this article Eisenman only associates rain in James with images of eschatological judgment. This, however, ignores the wealth of Old Testament and early Jewish literature that associates rain with blessing (perhaps even eschatological blessing).

PhD – a comic strip for grad students

I’ve stumbled upon a comic strip for grad students. Based at Stanford, PhD (standing for “piled higher and deeper”) chronicles the pains and the joys of being a grad student. I know that many of the folks who read this blog are either seminary/grad students or work with the species on a regular basis, so I figured I’d pass it along. Too bad they don’t have a theology or biblical studies grad student in the host of characters… Nonetheless, I can still identify with much of the material. ENJOY!

Pray for reign…

A good friend of mine died this morning. Her painful battle with cancer over the last few years has been a constant reminder that our hope is in the resurrection at the future reign of our Lord. While this is a blog on all things jacobean, the apostle Paul every once in a while gets it right!

Λογίζομαι γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ ἄξια τὰ παθήματα τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ πρὸς τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς. I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us (Romans 8:18 NIV).

I find it interesting that Paul compares our “present sufferings” with the glory to be revealed in us. After all, in human experience it is pain that often makes the deepest impression on us in our lives. The abuse we suffer at home or on the playground can scar us deeply, and the misery of illness can wear thin the thickest shield of faith. Yet all of this present suffering is nothing compared to the glory revealed in us at the resurrection. James calls his readers to faithful endurance while waiting for what Paul called the “glory to be revealed” at the coming of the Lord.

Μακροθυμήσατε οὖν, ἀδελφοί, ἕως τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου. ἰδοὺ ὁ γεωργὸς ἐκδέχεται τὸν τίμιον καρπὸν τῆς γῆς μακροθυμῶν ἐπ᾽αὐτῷ ἕως λάβῃ πρόϊμον καὶ ὄψιμον. μακροθυμήσατε καὶ ὑμεῖς, στηρίξατε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν, ὅτι ἡ παρουσία τοῦ κυρίου ἤγγικεν Be patient, then, brothers, until the Lord’s coming. See how the farmer waits for the land to yield its valuable crop and how patient he is for the autumn and spring rains. You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near (James 5:7-8 NIV).

In this passage James likens the coming of the Lord to the arrival of the rain in Palestine. As a farmer waits for the rain, we are to wait for the “reign” of Christ. The farmer, whose livelihood and survival depends on the proper timing of the rain, is still subject to the timing of things. He can do nothing but wait patiently. We, who often don’t realize it but also depend wholly upon the “reign” must wait patiently as well. We are to endure faithfully, but we do not endure without hope. Our wait should be tempered with the reality that any suffering we endure is a shadow of the intensity of an eternity under the righteous rule of the Savior.

My thesis is dedicated to Sandy who no longer has to wait for the reign. May its words teach me and perhaps others to pray with Elijah-like fervency for the coming reign.

Abraham, Rain, Monotheism & the Evil Yezer in Jubilees and James?

Rinaldo Fabris, in a footnote (p. 347, n. 46) mentions a string of citations illustrating the importance of rain (in reference to his comments on Jas 5:17-18). One of the citations was to Jubilees 12:4, 18. Below is the text of Jubilees 12 according to Charles’ APOT:

1 And it came to pass in the sixth week, in the seventh year thereof, that Abram said to Terah his father, saying, ‘Father!’ 2 . . . , ‘What help and profit have we from those idols which thou dost worship, . . . ? . . . 4 Worship the God of heaven, Who causes the rain and the dew to descend on the earth And does everything upon the earth, And has created everything by His word, And all life is from before His face. . . .

Though his father does not react positively to Abraham’s revelation at first, Abraham does destroy all of the household idols. (He also marries Sarah here in the narrative. The theme of rain continues, however:

16 And in the sixth week, in the fifth year thereof, Abram sat up throughout the night on the new moon of the seventh month to observe the stars from the evening to the morning, in order to see what would be the character of the year with regard to the rains, and he was alone as he sat and observed. 17 And a word came into his heart and he said: All the signs of the stars, and the signs of the moon and of the sun are all in the hand of the Lord. Why do I search (them) out? 18 If He desires, He causes it to rain, morning and evening; And if He desires, He withholds it, And all things are in his hand.’ 19 And he prayed that night and said, ‘My God, God Most High, Thou alone art my God, And Thee and Thy dominion have I chosen. And Thou hast created all things, And all things that are the work of thy hands. 20 Deliver me from the hands of evil spirits who have dominion over the thoughts of men’s hearts, And let them not lead me astray from Thee, my God. And stablish Thou me and my seed for ever That we go not astray from henceforth and for evermore.’

Note that he prays for deliverance from “evil spirits who have dominion over the thoughts of men’s hearts” (cf. Jas 1:13-15) and that he and his seed will not go astray (cf. Jas 5:19-20). Verbal parallels should be checked… David Instone-Brewer suggests that James is a homily on the life of Abraham (as transmitted in Jubilees). He does not mention the possibility of a connection here at James 5:17-18 via Jubilees 12. This should be explored.

Elijah in the Seder Olam Rabbah

Regarding the eschatological return of Elijah, it is interesting to note Seder Olam 17. Milikowski dates the Seder Olam to the 2nd cent. (attributed to R. Yose ben Halaphta). Here there is not just one return of Elijah, but two – during the days of the messiah, and later when “Gog will arrive.” This is significant for Christian eschatology and beliefs on the return of Elijah, given that the Gospels’ equation of John the Baptist with Elijah (or one who came in the “spirit and power of Elijah”) and Rev. 11’s two witnesses, who are patterned for a large part after Elijah, and who are said to be martyred by the Antichrist. Here is the text of the Seder Olam Rabbah:

In the second year of Ahaziah (King of Israel) Elijah was hidden away and is not seen until the messiah comes. In the days of the messiah he will be seen and hidden away a second time and will not be seen until Gog will arrive. At present he records the deeds of all generations.

אחזיהו בנ אחאב מלך שנתים ובשנה השנית לאחזיהו גיגנז אליהו ואינו נראה עד שיבוא משיח ובימות המשיח נראה וניגנז שינית ואינו נראה עד שיבא גוג ועכשו הוא כותב מעשה כל הדורות כולן

Translation by Chayim Milikowski, “Trajectories of Return, Restoration and Redemption in Rabbinic Judaism: Elijah, the Messiah, the War of Gog and the World to Come.” Pages 265-280 in Restoration: Old Testament, Jewish, and Christian Perspectives (ed. James M. Scott.; Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 72; Leiden: Brill, 2001), 267. Hebrew text of Seder Olam 17 from Joseph Milikowski, “Seder Olam: A Rabbinic Chronography” (Ph.D. diss. Yale University, 1981), 323-324.

The text is as follows in Heinrich W. Guggenheimer’s edition:

אֲחַזְיָה בֶן־אַחְב מָלַךְ שְׁנָתָיַם. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְאֲחַזְיָה נִגְנָז אֵלִיָּהוּ וְלֹא נִרְאֶיה עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ וְנִרְאֶה ונִגְנָז שְׁנִיָּה עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא גוֹג וּמָגוג. וְעַכְשָׁיו הוּא כוֹתֵב מַעשֵׂה כָל־הַדּוֹרוֹת כֻּלָּם וָיָּמָת כִּדְבַר־ייי אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֵּר אֵלִיָּהוּ וגו׳.

Aḥaziah ben Aḥab ruled for two years. In Aḥaziah’s second year, Elijah was hidden and will not be seen again until King Messiah will come, then he will be seen, then hidden a second time until Gog and Magog come. But now he writes down the deeds of all generations. (2Kings 1:17) “He (Aḥaziah) died, following the Eternal’s word that Elijah had spoken.”

Seder Olam: The Rabbinic View of Biblical Chronology (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998), 153-155.

Note also that according to Seder Olam, “In the year 13 of Aḥab there was a great famine in Samaria for three years, followed by war with Ben Hadad for 2 1/2 years” (Guggenheimer, 154).

Elijah in the Lives of the Prophets

Note a few things regarding the story of Elijah in the Lives of the Prophets 21:1-15:

  • (v. 2) At his birth, Elijah is given by an angel “flames of fire” to eat (cf. Rev 11:5; 2 Kgs 1:10-14).
  • (v. 5) He is said to pray for the drought and for the rain (cf. Jas 5:17-18).
  • (v. 4) Elijah’s prayer for drought and rain are referred to as “signs.”

Below is the Greek text from T. Schermann, Prophetarum vitae fabulosae (Leipzig: Teubner, 1907), 93-94 and the English trans. by D.R.A.Hare, “The Lives of the Prophets” (OTP 2:396-97).

καʹ. Ἠλίας Θεσβίτης ἐκ γῆς Ἀράβων, φυλῆς Ἀαρών, οἰκῶν ἐν Γαλαάδ, ὅτι ἡ Θέσβις δόμα ἦν τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν. Ὅτε εἶχε τεχθῆναι, εἶδε Σοβαχὰ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἄνδρες λευκοφανεῖς αὐτὸν προσηγόρευον, καὶ ὅτι ἐν πυρὶ αὐτὸν ἐσπαργάνουν, καὶ φλόγα πυρὸς ἐδίδουν αὐτῷ φαγεῖν καὶ ἐλθὼν ἀνήγγειλεν ἐν Ἱερουσαλὴμ καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ χρησμός· μὴ δειλιάσῃς· ἔσται γὰρ ἡ οἴκησις αὐτοῦ φῶς καὶ ὁ λόγος αὐτοῦ ἀπόφασις καὶ κρινεῖ τὸν Ἰσραήλ.
(94.) Τὰ δὲ σημεῖα ἃ ἐποίησεν, εἰσὶ ταῦτα· ηὔξατο Ἠλίας καὶ οὐκ ἔβρεξεν ἐπὶ ἔτη τρία καὶ πάλιν ηὔξατο μετὰ τρία ἔτη καὶ γέγονε πολὺς ὑετός· ἐν Σαρεφθοῖς τῆς Σιδωνίας
ἐποίησε διὰ ῥήματος κυρίου τὴν ὑδρίαν τῆς χήρας μὴ ἐκλεῖψαι καὶ τὴν καψάκην τοῦ ἐλαίου μὴ ἐλαττωθῆναι· τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς ἀποθανόντα ἤγειρεν ὁ θεὸς ἐκ νεκρῶν εὐξαμένου αὐτοῦ. Προβλήματος γενομένου παρ’ αὐτοῦ καὶ τῶν προφητῶν τοῦ Βάαλ, τίς ἂν εἴη ὁ ἀληθινὸς καὶ ὄντως θεός, ᾕρησε γενέσθαι θυσίαν παρά τε αὐτοῦ κἀκείνων καὶ μὴ ὑποθεῖναι πῦρ, ἀλλ’ ἕκαστον εὔξασθαι καὶ τὸν ἐπακούοντα αὐτὸν εἶναι θεόν. Οἱ μὲν οὖν τοῦ Βάαλ ηὔχοντο καὶ κατετέμνοντο ἕως ὥρας ἐνάτης καὶ οὐδεὶς αὐτοῖς ἐπήκουεν· ὁ δὲ Ἠλίας καὶ ὕδατος πολλοῦ πληρώσας τὸν τόπον, ἔνθα ἦν ἡ θυσία, ηὔξατο· καὶ εὐθὺς ἐπέπεσε πῦρ καὶ ἀνήλωσε τὴν θυσίαν, καὶ τὸ ὕδωρ ἐξέλειπεν· καὶ πάντες τὸν μὲν θεὸν εὐλόγησαν, τοὺς δὲ τοῦ Βάαλ ἀνεῖλον ὄντας τετρακοσίους πεντήκοντα. Τῷ βασιλεῖ Ὀζίᾳ ἀποστείλαντι μαντεύσασθαι παρὰ εἰδώλων προεφήτευσε θάνατον καὶ ἀπέθανεν.
Δύο πεντηκοντάρχων ἀποσταλέντων ἐπ’ αὐτὸν παρὰ Ὀχοζίου τοῦ βασιλέως Ἰσραὴλ ἐπεκαλέσατο τὸν κύριον καὶ πῦρ ἀπ’ οὐρανοῦ κατέβη κἀκείνους ἀνήλωσε τὸ πῦρ ἐκ προστάγματος κυρίου.
Κόρακες ἔφερον αὐτῷ ἄρτους τὸ πρωΐ, δείλης δὲ κρέα· τῇ μηλωτῇ ἐπάταξε τὸν Ἰορδάνην καὶ διῃρέθη καὶ διέβησαν ξηρῷ τῷ ποδὶ, αὐτός τε καὶ Ἐλισαῖος· τὸ τελευταῖον ἀνελήφθη ἅρματι πυρός.
1 Elijah, a Thesbite from the land of the Arabs of Aaron’s tribe, was living in Gilead, for Thesbe was given to the priests. 2 When he was to be born, his father Sobacha saw that men of shining white appearance were greeting him and wrapping him in fire, and they gave him flames of fire to eat. 3 And he went and reported (this) in Jerusalem, and the oracle told him, Do not be afraid, for his dwelling will be light and his word judgment, and he will judge Israel.
4 The signs which he did are these. 5 Elijah prayed, and it did not rain for three years, and after three years he prayed again and abundant rain came. 6 In Zerephath of Sidon through the word of the Lord he made the jar of the widow not to fail and the flask of oil not to diminish. 7 Her son who had died God raised from the dead after (Elijah) prayed. 8 When the question was posed by him and the prophets of Baal concerning who is the true and real God, he proposed that a sacrifice be offered both by him and by them, and that fire not be placed under (it), but that each should pray, and the one answering him would be God. 9 Accordingly, the (prophets) of Baal prayed and cut themselves until the ninth hour, and no one answered them; and Elijah, when he had filled the place where the sacrifice was with much water, also prayed, and immediately fire came down and consumed the sacrifice, and the water was gone. 10 And all blessed God, and killed the four hundred and fifty (prophets) of Baal. 11 When King Ahaziah sent to obtain an oracle from idols, (Elijah) prophesied death, and he died.
12 When two captains of fifty were sent to him from Ahaziah, the king of Israel, he invoked the Lord and fire came down from heaven, and the fire consumed them at the Lord’s command.
13 Ravens brought him bread in the morning and meat in the afternoon. 14 With a sheepskin he struck the Jordan and it was divided, and they crossed over with dry feet, both he and Elisha. 15 Finally he was taken up in a chariot of fire.

Elijah prays for fire according to Josephus…

As Elijah “prays” for drought in James 5:17, so he prays for fire to consume his enemies in Josephus, Ant. 9.2 §23:

And when the captain that was sent found Elijah sitting upon the top of a hill, he commanded him to come down, and to come to the king, for so had he enjoined: but that in case he refused, they would carry him by force. Elijah said to him, “That you may have a trial whether I be a true prophet, I will pray that fire may fall from heaven, and kill both the soldiers and yourself.” So he prayed, and a whirlwind of fire fell [from heaven], and killed the captain, and those who were with him (Whiston’s translation). εὑρὼν δὲ τὸν ᾽Ηλίαν ὁ πεμφθεὶς ταξίαρχος ἐπὶ τῆς κορυφῆς τοῦ ὄρους καθεζόμενον καταβάντα ἥκειν ἐκέλευε πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα κελεύειν γὰρ τοῦτο ἐκεῖνον εἰ δὲ μὴ θελήσειεν ἄκοντα βιάσεσθαι ὁ δὲ εἰπὼν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐπὶ πείρᾳ τοῦ προφήτης ἀληθὴς ὑπάρχειν εὔξεσθαι πῦρ ἀπ᾽ οὐρανοῦ πεσὸν ἀπολέσαι τούς τε στρατιώτας καὶ αὐτὸν εὔχεται καὶ πρηστὴρ κατενεχθεὶς διαφθείρει τόν τε ταξίαρχον καὶ τοὺς σὺν αὐτῷ

Elijah’s prayer for rain (TgJ 1 Kgs 18:37)

Targum Jonathan on 1 Kgs 18:37 explicitly states that Elijah prayed for rain.

Receive my prayer, Lord, with the fire;
receive my prayer, Lord, with rain;
and may this people know by your doing for them the sign,
that you, Lord, are God,
and by your loving them you are asking for them by your Memra
to bring them back to fear of you.
And they gave their divided heart.

קביל צלותי [בעותי] יוי באישׁתא
קביל צלותי [בעותי] יוי במטר
וידעון עמא הדין ארי במעבדך להון נסא
ארי את יוי הוא אלהים
ואת ברחמתך [ברחמותך] יתהון משׁתאיל להון במימרך
לאתבותהון לדחלתך
ואנון יהבו [יהבין] ית לבהון פליג

The Masoretic Text makes no mention of Elijah praying for rain, but James explicitly gives Elijah’s prayer for rain as a second example of the prophet’s effective prayer (5:18). Given James’ emphasis on “double mindedness” (δίψυχος) in the context of prayer (1:5-8, cf. v. 8), Targum Jonathan’s use of “divided heart” (לבהון פליג) is particularly interesting. Elijah’s prayer for drought and rain is not simply a hyperbolic example of effective prayer, but is instead an example of intercessory prayer for judgment and mercy for the sake of effecting repentance. Thus this example is wholly appropriate in the greater context of vv. 13-20, where prayer for the sick takes place in a context of repentance and confession.

Translation by D. J. Harrington & A. J. Saldarini, Targum Jonathan of the Former Prophets (Aramaic Bible 10; Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1987), 248-49. Aramaic text from the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon; brackets (e.g., [בעותי]) indicate variants given in Sperber’s Aramaic Bible (Leiden: Brill, 1959-73).


Plagued recently with insomnia, I’ve been reading Sirach. I am struck by the similarities between Sirach’s teaching on prayer in the midst of trouble and James’ instruction in ch. 5. In particular, Sir 35:26 reads, “His mercy is as welcome in time of distress as clouds of rain in time of drought.” Unfortunately the Heb. is incomplete in Ms. B:

ן מצוקה כעת חזיזם בעת בצורת[…………]

The LXX reads:

ὡραῖον ἔλεος ἐν καιρῷ θλίψεως αὐτοῦ ὡς νεφέλαι ὑετοῦ ἐν καιρῷ ἀβροχίας (v. 24).

The Vulg. has

speciosa misericordia Dei in tempore tribulationis quasi nubes pluviae in tempore siccitatis.

I hope to explore the context of this passage in greater detail. For now, it is sufficient to note that Sirach provides an analogy between God’s mercy in distress and rain in drought. Elijah’s prayer for rain in James, when read against this backdrop fits well with the broader eschatological context of James 5.

Be patient, then, brothers, until the Lord’s coming. See how the farmer waits for the land to yield its valuable crop and how patient he is for the autumn and spring rains. You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near (vv. 7-8).

James admonishes his readers to remain patient–waiting for the Lord’s coming–waiting for rain–waiting for his intervention ἐν καιρῷ θλίψεως. Elijah’s prayer for rain in James mirrors our prayers for the mercy that attends the coming of the Lord.

Elijah’s drought in the Yalkut Simeoni

I recently came across a small, relatively unknown article by De Lacy O’Leary that gives a few rabbinic parallels to material found in James. The last two parallels are particularly interesting for James 5:17-18. The first contains the only extra-biblical reference that I know of to Elijah’s drought lasting specifically three years and six months. Yalk. Sim. on 1 Kgs 18:1 reads, “R. Berachia and R. Kalbo in the name of R. Jochanan said, Three months before and three months after, and twelve in the middle made eighteen months, and because thery were days of suffering he called them many days” (רב ברכיה ור״ הלבו בשם רבי יוחנן ג׳ חדשים בראשונה וג׳ חדשים באחרתה וי״ב באפצע הרי י״ה חדשים וכי ימים רבים חיו אצא ימים של צער לפינך הוא קורא אותן רבים). O’Leary explains that this means that the “third year” of the biblical narrative lasted eighteen months, hence the drought would have lasted a total of three and a half years if this period is added to the preceding two years.

The second illustration is from Yalk. Sim. on 1 Kgs 17, “‘And Elijah the Tishbite said there should not be dew or rain.’ R. Berachiah said R. Josa and the Rabbonin dispute about this; one said that God accepted his prayer concerning the rain but not concerning the dew, and the other that he was heard both concerning the rain and the dew” (ויאמר אליהו התסבי אם יהיה טל ימסר רבי ברכיה אמר רבי ייסא ורבנין חד אמר על המטר נשמע לן על הטל לא נשמע לו וח אמר על הטל ועל המטר ושמע לו). This passage confirms James’ account of Elijah’s prayer invoking the drought and the rain–a tradition present elsewhere in early Jewish literature.

Of course, it should be noted that the Yalkut is a very late document, but at the very least it shows that medieval Jewish exegetes did view the narrative in a similar way to James.

See De Lacey O’Leary, “Rabbinical Illustrations of the Epistle of James,” Expository Times 15 (1903-1904): 334-335.

The text above concerning the Yalk. Sim. on 1 Kgs 18:1 is taken from Lev. Rab. 19:5. The following text is from the Soncino edition (pages 244):

For many days Israel was without the God of truth,’ etc. Were they then really many days?1 – [No], but because those were days of distress,2 Scripture calls them ‘many’,3 Similar thereto is: And it came to pass after many days, that the word of the Lord came to Elijah, in the third year,4 etc. (I Kings XVIII, 1). R. Berekiah and R. Helbo said in the name of R. Johanan: Three months at the beginning, three months at the end, and twelve in between make eighteen months; are these then ‘many days’?– [No], but those were days of distress, and Scripture therefore designates them as ‘many’. Similar, again, is: And it came to pass in the course of those many days that the king of Egypt died, etc. (Ex. II, 23). Were they really ‘many days’?5 – [No], but because those were days of distress, they are called ‘many’. Similar, again, is: Many days, even a hundred and fourscore days (Est. I, 4). Were they really ‘many days’? – [No], but because those were days of distress,6 they are called ‘many’.

(1) ‘Many days’ in many Biblical verses obviously means ‘many years’ or ‘long periods’.
(2) V. Chron. XV, 4.
(3) Pain and suffering make time seem longer.
(4) Sc. of drought and consequent famine.
(5) In Ex. R. I,34 (q.v.) the verse is interpreted to mean that he became leprous, not that he actually died. His leprosy did not last long, hence this question.
(6) For the Jews, who saw the vessels of the Temple used at Ahasuerus’ feast. v. Est. R. II, 11. Mah. says that the Haggadist must have had in mind that since Scripture, in addition to stating a definite number of days, says first—apparently redundantly—‘many days,’ this expression must have some special meaning.

The parallel to this passage is found in Esther Rabbah 2:2

2. MANY DAYS (I, 4). They were days of tribulation; and similarly we find, And it came to pass in the course of those many days that the king of Egypt died (Ex. II, 23). Now were they really many days? No, only because they were days of tribulation, Scripture reckoned them as many days. Similarly we find: And it came to pass after many days, that the word of the Lord came to Elijah (I Kings XVIII, 1). Now were they really many days? No, only because they were days of tribulation, Scripture calls them many days. How many were they? R. Berekiah said in the name of R. Helbo reporting R. Johanan: One month in one year, and one month in another and twelve months in the middle, making altogether fourteen months. Similarly, And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days (Lev. XV, 25), on which R. Hiyya taught: ‘Days’ signifies two, ‘many’ signifies three. Are these then many? No, only because they are days of pain they are called ‘many’.