Search Biblia Patristica Online

Excellent news! Ben Blackwell at the Dunelm Road notes in a recent post that the index of patristic biblical citations & allusions found in the 7 volume Biblia Patristica is searchable online through BIBLindex!

As Ben notes, the search interface is not terribly user-friendly, but who cares? It beats flipping through pages any day. Check out his post for information on using this resource.

In case you’re wondering, here’s a little bit of information on the Biblia Patristica series (as explained by Ben):

Seven volumes have been published to date, along with a supplementary volume for biblical references in Philo of Alexandria, who served as an exegetical model for many patristic authors.  The entries do not distinguish between quotations and allusions, and criteria for the latter are rather loose. (Began in 1975, latest volume in 2000.)

  • Volume 1: beginnings of extracanonical Christian literature up to Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian.
  • Volume 2: Third century, apart from Origen.
  • Volume 3: Origen
  • Volume 4: Fourth century, includes Eusebius of Caesarea, Cyril of Jerusalem, and Epiphanius of Salamis.
  • Volume 5: covers Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa, and Amphilochius of Iconium.
  • Volume 6: Latin writers, Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose of Milan, and the Ambrosiaster.
  • Volume 7: Didymus the Blind.

If this post excites you, you’ll want to read Ben’s earlier post on Patristic Biblical Citations.

Thanks, Ben, for blogging on this!

James in the Apostolic Fathers, Continued…

Below is a table that summarizes the location of possible allusions to James in the Apostolic Fathers. I have not noted those parallels between James and the Shepherd of Hermas that are given a “C” classification in the NTAF.1 Special attention must be paid to Hermas as it contains the vast majority of parallels.

James Apostolic Fathers Cited in:
1:4 Polycarp, Phil. 12:3 BP, Lake
1:4 Herm. Mand. 9:6 (39:6) NTAF {C}
1:5 Herm. Sim. 5.4.3 (57:3) AFNTC
1:5 Herm. Mand. 9:1-3 (39:6; cf. Sim. 9.24.1,2 [101:1,2]) NTAF {C}
1:6-8 Herm. Mand. 9:5,6 (39:5,6; cf. Sim. 1.3 [50:3]) BP, AFNTC, Lake, NTAF {C}
1:17 Herm. Mand. 9.1 (39:1; cf. Mand. 11.5 [43:5]) NTAF {C}
1:27 Herm. Sim. 6.1.1 (61:1) AFNTC
1:27 Herm. Sim. 1:8 (50:8) BP, AFNTC, Lake
1:27 Herm. Mand. 2.7 (27:7) Lightfoot
2:7 Herm. Sim. 8.6.4 (72:4) AFNTC, Lake
2:23 1 Clem. 10:1, 7 BP, Ehrman, Lake
2:25 1 Clem. 12:1 BP, Ehrman, Lake
3:15 Herm. Mand. 11.5,6 (43:5,6; cf. Mand. 9.11 [39:11]) AFNTC, Lake, NTAF {C}
3:18 Herm. Sim. 9.19.2 (96:2) AFNTC, Lake
4:4 2 Clem. 6:3,5 NTAF {D}
4:6 1 Clem. 30:2 (cf. 1 Peter 5:5; Prov 3:34; Ign. Eph. 5:3) BP, Holmes, Ehrman, Lake, NTAF2
4:7 Herm. Mand. 12.2.4 (45:4) AFNTC, Lake
4:7 Herm. Mand. 12.5.1 (48:2) BP, AFNTC, Lake (index)
4:11 Herm. Vis. 2.2 (27:2) BP, Lighfoot
4:12 Herm. Mand. 12.6.3 (49:3) AFNTC, Lake, NTAF {C}
4:12 Herm. Sim. 9.23.2-4 (100:2-4) AFNTC, Lake, NTAF {C}
5:4 Herm. Vis. 3.9.6 (17:6) AFNTC, Lake
5:5 Herm. Sim. 6.1.6 (61:6) AFNTC
5:7,8,10 2 Clem. 20:2-4 NTAF {D}
5:11 Herm. Mand. 9.2 (39.2) NTAF {C}
5:16 2 Clem. 15:1 NTAF {D}
5:19-20 2 Clem. 15:1 BP, AFNTC
5:20 1 Clem. 49:5 (cf. 1 Peter 4:8; Prov 10:12) NTAF3
5:20 2 Clem. 16:4 NTAF {D}


BP = Biblia Patristica
AFNTC = The Apostolic Fathers: A Translation and Commentary
Ehrman = Bart Ehrman’s Loeb Classical Library translation
Lake = Kirsopp Lake’s Loeb Classical Library translation
NTAF = The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers


  1. The classification system used in the NTAF is described as follows:

    Class A includes those books about which there can be no reasonable doubt, either because they are expressly mentioned, or because there are other certain indications of their use. Class B comprises those books the use of which, in the judgement of the editors, reaches a high degree of probability. With class C we come to a lower degree of probability; and in class D are placed those books which may possibly be referred to, but in regard to which the evidence appeared too uncertain to allow any reliance to be placed upon it (NTAF iii).

    It should be noted that parallels between James and the Apostolic Fathers are only given C and D ratings in the NTAF.

  2. A. J. Carlyle notes the dependency of 1 Clem. 30:1-2, 1 Peter 2:1; 5:5 and James 4:6 on Proverbs 3:34 (NTAF 55).
  3. Again Clement, Peter and James are dependent upon Proverbs, though the wording of Clement (ἀγάπη καλύπτει πλῆθος ἁμαρτιῶν) agrees exactly with Peter over against James and the LXX (NTAF 56).

James in the Apostolic Fathers

Rick Brannan at has been writing a blog series on “The Pastoral Epistles in the Apostolic Fathers.” His interest was sparked, in part, by his discovery of the The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers (Oxford: Clarendon, 1905), a text available as a PDF at the Internet Archives (10MB). This title could be available for Logos Bible Software in the future.

His posts have got me to thinking about James in the Apostolic Fathers. I have not done any work in the Fathers before, so I think it would be beneficial to take a look. The presence of allusions to James in the Apostolic Fathers (or the lack thereof) can be particularly important to deciding when James was written. If there are clear allusions or quotes of James in the Fathers, it would indicate an earlier date. Of course all the issues of determining dependence and the danger of parallelomania need to be taken into consideration.

So, stay tuned. I hope to be a bit more active on this blog now that I’ve rested my brain a little.